The Things That Dreams Are Made Of
Although the label is now owned by the Universal Music Group, its colourful history is forever associated with the championing of new and unconventional music forms during its fledgling years. Virgin founder Richard Branson started his empire in 1970 with nothing more than a mail order outlet, selling discounted records.
The name Virgin came from the fact that Branson and his team of directors were all new to business. Then came a small record shop in London’s Oxford Street a year later and not long after, a residential recording complex in an Oxfordshire mansion which became the now-famous Manor Studios.
Further shops opened so with the success of the retail arm and studio, a record label was launched in 1973. Recognising he had no real working knowledge of music, Branson appointed his second cousin Simon Draper (who had been Virgin’s buyer) as Managing Director to seek out new talent for the new A&R led company.
Beginning with MIKE OLDFIELD’s ‘Tubular Bells’ and the catalogue number V2001, progressive acts such as GONG along with cosmic Germans FAUST and TANGERINE DREAM soon followed, all with degrees of varying success.
But with the advent of punk and keen to shake off its hippy image, Virgin gained notoriety by signing THE SEX PISTOLS in 1977 and releasing ‘God Save The Queen’ in the process. The label courted further controversy when they issued the album ‘Never Mind The Bollocks, Here’s The Sex Pistols’ to great fanfare. Virgin ended up in the dock under the 1899 Indecent Advertising Act over a poster in their Nottingham record shop.
But Branson and defending QC John Mortimer had an ace up their sleeve; Reverend James Kingsley, a professor of English Studies at Nottingham University was called as a witness. Under questioning, Kingsley was asked for the derivation of the word “bollocks”. Apparently, it was used in the 19th century as a nickname for clergymen who were known to talk rubbish and the word later developed into meaning “of nonsense”.
Wearing his clerical collar in court, Kingsley confirmed: “They became known for talking a great deal of bollocks, just as old balls or baloney also come to mean testicles, so it has twin uses in the dictionary”. The case was thrown out by the judge…
After that, the label reinvented itself as a centre of post-punk and new wave creativity, signing bands such as THE RUTS, XTC, PUBLIC IMAGE LIMITED, MAGAZINE, THE SKIDS, DEVO and PENETRATION. Then Virgin threw in its lot with the Synth Britannia revolution and gave homes to THE HUMAN LEAGUE, SPARKS, JAPAN, SIMPLE MINDS, JOHN FOXX, OMD (via its short lived Dindisc off-shoot), HEAVEN 17 and CHINA CRISIS as well as more conventional acts of the period such as PHIL COLLINS, BRYAN FERRY and CULTURE CLUB. In 1982, on the back of ‘Don’t You Want Me?’ having been a No 1 in the UK and USA, Virgin had made a profit of £2 million but by 1983, this had leaped to £11 million!
Virgin Records was sold by Branson to Thorn EMI in 1992 reportedly for around £560 million to fund Virgin Atlantic Airways. Under new management, the label became less visionary and more corporate with SPICE GIRLS, LENNY KRAVITZ, THE ROLLING STONES, MEAT LOAF and JANET JACKSON being examples of the brand’s continued global success, while many of the innovative acts who had helped build the label were surplus to requirements.
Despite this, Virgin Records still maintains a tremendous back catalogue and its electronic legacy continues today with the recent signing of Glaswegian synth trio CHVRCHES. So here are twenty albums from the iconic label which The Electricity Club considers significant in the development of electronic music. Restricted to one album per artist moniker and featuring only UK releases initially issued on or licensed to the Virgin label, they are presented in chronological order…
TANGERINE DREAM Rubycon (1975)
‘Phaedra’ may have been the breakthrough album but the much under rated ‘Rubycon’ consolidated TANGERINE DREAM’s position as leaders in the field of meditative electronic music with a wider palette and more focussed direction. Featuring the classic line-up of Edgar Froese, Peter Baumann and Chris Franke, the hypnotic noodles of VCS3 and Moogs dominated proceedings while Mellotrons and organic lines added to the trancey impressionism.
At times, the trio sounded like they were trapped inside a transistor radio. The iconic dream sequence of ‘Rubycon – Part 1’ in particular has been sampled on numerous occasions including for the live presentation of Alan Wilder’s RECOIL project.
ASHRA New Age Of Earth (1977)
Guitarist Manuel Göttsching had been a member of Krautrockers ASH RA TEMPEL but looking to visit synthesized climes, he explored more progressive voxless territory armed with an Eko Rhythm Computer, ARP Odyssey and what was to become his signature keyboard sound, a Farfisa Synthorchestra.
An exponent of a more transient soloing style like PINK FLOYD’s David Gilmour, ‘New Age Of Earth’ used the guitar for texture as much as for melody; this was particularly evident on the wonderful 20 minute ‘Nightdust’. That and the beautiful drifts on the gently percussive ‘Sunrain’ were just two of the jewels in this beautiful treasure trove of an album.
STEVE HILLAGE Rainbow Dome Musick (1979)
Already an established member of the Virgin family as a member of GONG, solo artist and in-house producer, Hillage had a love of German experimental music and ventured into ambient with long standing partner Miquette Giraudy. Recorded for the Rainbow Dome at the ‘Festival for Mind-Body-Spirit’ at Olympia, these two lengthy Moog and ARP assisted tracks each had a beautifully spacey vibe to induce total relaxation with a colourful sound spectrum.
Originally pressed on clear vinyl, unfortunately the quality was so poor that the album did not realise its aural potential until it was reissued on CD. Meanwhile the bones of ‘Rainbow Dome Musick’ eventually led to the chilled techno of SYSTEM 7 and collaborations with THE ORB.
SPARKS No1 In Heaven (1979)
Following the inspirational success of ‘I Feel Love’, SPARKS were put in contact with its producer Giorgio Moroder who had aspirations to work with a band. The resultant album saw Russell Mael’s flamboyant falsetto fitting well with the electronic disco template. The tremendous first single ‘The No1 Song In Heaven’ hit the UK charts a few months before TUBEWAY ARMY’s seminal ‘Are Friends Electric?’. Meanwhile, the follow-up ‘Beat The Clock’ actually got into the Top 10 although ‘Tryouts For The Human Race’ was unable to capitalise on the momentum.
Of the remaining three tracks on the album, ‘Academy Award Performance’ would have made a great single but that would have been just one too many! ‘No1 in Heaven’ was probably overshadowed by the success of GARY NUMAN, hence its comparatively poor sales.
JOHN FOXX Metamatic (1980)
“I want to be a machine” snarled JOHN FOXX on ULTRAVOX’s eponymous debut and after he left the band in 1979, he virtually went the full hog with this JG Ballard inspired seminal recording. ‘Underpass’ and ‘No-One Driving’ were surprising hit singles that underlined the dystopian nature of Foxx’s mindset at the time while the fabulous ‘A New Kind Of Man’ and the deviant ‘He’s A Liquid’ were pure unadulterated Sci-Fi driven by the cold mechanics of a Roland CR78 Compurhythm.
Although not on the original ‘Metamatic’ album, from the same sessions, stand alone single and now bonus track ‘Burning Car’ conveyed the frightening spectre of staring death in the face.
JAPAN Gentlemen Take Polaroids (1980)
Having been dropped in 1980 by Ariola Hansa despite the Roxy-ish sound on their third album ‘Quiet Life’ being palatable with the emerging New Romantic scene, JAPAN found a refuge at Virgin. But the recording sessions were fraught with tension as singer David Sylvian started writing songs on keyboards and excluded guitarist Rob Dean from half of the album. Meanwhile, a new found interest in Japanese technopop saw Sylvian collaborate with YELLOW MAGIC ORCHESTRA’s Ryuichi Sakamoto on the splendid closer ‘Taking Islands In Africa’ which didn’t feature most of the band!
Despite Sylvian’s dictatorial stance and four of the songs clocking in at nearly 7 minutes, ‘Gentlemen Take Polaroids’ was a wonderful collection of thoughtful songs that merged JAPAN’s esoteric muzak with the exotic Far Eastern textures that were to follow in earnest on their swansong ‘Tin Drum’. One of the album’s best numbers ‘Swing’ even succeeded in out Roxy-ing ROXY MUSIC while the haunting ‘Nightporter’ was the ultimate Erik Satie tribute.
BRITISH ELECTRIC FOUNDATION Music For Stowaways (1981)
When they left THE HUMAN LEAGUE in Autumn 1980, Martyn Ware and Ian Craig Marsh formed BEF, a production company to utilise their talents and released ‘Music For Stowaways’, an instrumental album only available on cassette to accessorise Sony’s brand new Stowaway portable tape player. The duo even considered pitching for a sponsorship deal until the Japanese corporation changed the name of their new device to Walkman!
With economic recession decimating the industrial heartland of Sheffield and possible nuclear holocaust lingering, the chilling resignation of ‘Decline Of The West’, the futurist horror of ‘Music To Kill Your Parents By’ and the doom laden fallout of ‘Uptown Apocalypse’ certainly connected with the album’s concept of a walking soundtrack to life. Whatever, it definitely foresaw modern day iPod culture.
Available as part of the 3CD boxed set ‘1981-2011’ or as a download via Virgin Records. Please note that there is a mastering error on ‘Decline Of The West’ in this set so it is best purchased separately from the ‘Penthouse & Pavement’ download bundle
THE HUMAN LEAGUE Dare (1981)
When DAVID BOWIE declared THE HUMAN LEAGUE as “the future of pop music” after seeing them at the Nashville in 1978, Virgin Records were quick to snap them up. After two albums ‘Reproduction’ and ‘Travelogue’ containing “synthesizers and vocals only” failed to set the world alight, manager Bob Last played a game of divide and rule on the original line-up and split them up.
Martyn Ware and Ian Craig Marsh would go on to form BEF and HEAVEN 17 while vocalist Philip Oakey, together with Director of Visuals Adrian Wright, would recruit Ian Burden, Jo Callis, Susanne Sulley and Joanne Catherall to record the now classic ‘Dare’ album under the auspices of producer Martin Rushent. Like KRAFTWERK with the heart of ABBA, the dreamboat collection of worldwide hits had a marvellous supporting cast in ‘The Things That Dreams Are Made Of’, ‘I Am The Law’ and ‘Darkness’. Only the Linn-ed up rework of ‘The Sound Of The Crowd’ and in hindsight, the overlong ‘Do Or Die’ blotted the album’s near flawlessness.
HEAVEN 17 Penthouse & Pavement (1981)
HEAVEN 17’s debut ‘Penthouse & Pavement’ was a landmark achievement, combining electronics with pop hooks and disco sounds while adding witty social and political commentary about yuppie aspiration and mutually assured destruction. The first ‘Pavement’ side was a showcase of hybrid funk driven by the then new Linn Drum Computer and embellished by the guitar and bass skills of youngster John Wilson.
The second ‘Penthouse’ side was more like an extension of THE HUMAN LEAGUE’s ‘Travelogue’, hardly surprising with it being Martyn Ware and Ian Craig Marsh’s swansong with the band. Fronted by the cool persona of vocalist Glenn Gregory, ‘Penthouse & Pavement’ is now a widely acknowledged classic album.
SIMPLE MINDS New Gold Dream (1982)
“You want to be with Virgin so bad that you’ll sign anyway” said Richard Branson to SIMPLE MINDS when they wanted to defect from Arista Records. And sign they did after the promise of US tour support. Following the promising ‘Sons & Fascination’, SIMPLE MINDS lost their intensity and recorded a great album filled with pretty synthesized melodies, effected textural guitar and driving lead bass runs.
The titles like ‘Someone Somewhere In Summertime’, ‘Colours Fly & Catherine Wheel’ and ‘Hunter & The Hunted’ made investigation essential and luckily, the music reflected that. Jim Kerr’s lyrics were utter gibberish but the vocals were fairly low down in the mix to produce a wonderful wash of sound. Unfortunately, the band seemed to be unaware of their strengths with this album and went global with a change of direction towards stadium rock. Interestingly, very few tracks from ‘New Gold Dream’ remained in the live set during this period, the only constant being the album’s weak point ‘Big Sleep’, which did exactly what it said on the tin!
DEVO Oh, No! It’s Devo (1982)
By 1982, DEVO had become much more of a synth based act with programmed percussion to boot. Under the helm of producer Roy Thomas Baker who had worked with both QUEEN and THE CARS, their sound moved away from the guitar dominated art rock of their Eno produced debut ‘Q: Are We Not Men? A: We Are Devo!’ As quirky as ever, the album’s concept was a response to criticism from the press about their imagery… thus they asked “what would an album by fascist clowns sound like?”
Opener ‘Time Out For Fun’ effectively became their new theme tune while the album’s first single ‘Peek-A-Boo’ was easily as a good as their breakthrough hit ‘Whip It’. Elsewhere, the swirling synth fest on ‘Explosions’ was a delight to the ears and in ‘Patterns’, surf guitar and electronics were successfully fused in a rousing pop tune.
Available as a double CD with ‘Q: Are We Not Men? A: We Are Devo’ via EMI Gold
OMD Dazzle Ships (1983)
OMD were initially signed to Virgin’s Factory styled subsidiary Dindisc Records under the directorship of Carol Wilson; their success had been an embarrassment to Richard Branson, particularly in 1980 when following the international success of ‘Enola Gay’, OMD had outsold every act in the parent group! But despite the massive success of ‘Architecture & Morality’ in 1981, the label ran into difficulties and was closed with OMD gleefully absorbed by the board into Virgin Records.
However, the first album Andy McCluskey and Paul Humphreys delivered was ‘Dazzle Ships’, a brave sonic exploration of Cold War tensions and economic corruption. Although it featured some of the band’s best work like ‘The Romance Of The Telescope’, ‘International’ and ‘Radio Waves’, ‘Dazzle Ships’ sold poorly on release. The band were strictly A&R’ed after that and never the same again, but this fractured nautical journey has since been vindicated as an experimental landmark.
RYUICHI SAKAMOTO Merry Christmas Mr Lawrence (1983)
Being the best looking member of YELLOW MAGIC ORCHESTRA, it was almost inevitable that Sakamoto San would turn to acting. His first role was alongside none other than DAVID BOWIE in ‘Merry Christmas Mr Lawrence’ and with it came his soundtrack. Featuring a mix of Fairlight and real orchestration, the main title theme tune resonated with emotion and traditional melody, even without the voice of DAVID SYLVIAN whose dulcet tones featured on the single version retitled ‘Forbidden Colours’.
With its recurring variations, ‘The Seed & the Sower’ was also a highlight while a chilling synthesized rendition of the funeral hymn ‘The Lord is My Shepherd’ aka ‘23rd Psalm’ brought a tear to the eye! Bringing tears to the eyes but for entirely different reasons was Bowie’s role as the tough rebellious New Zealander Jack Celliers. Although Sakamoto as Japanese camp commandant Captain Yonoi acquitted himself well, the Dame’s ham performance playing an Antipodean military man in the style of The King Of The Goblins from ‘Labyrinth’ has to be seen to be believed! Only James Coburn’s performance as an Australian in ‘The Great Escape’ rivals it!
Originally released as an LP and CD via Virgin Records, currently unavailable
CHINA CRISIS Working With Fire & Steel – Possible Pop Songs Volume 2 (1983)
Produced by Mike Howlett who had been the bassist in GONG and also worked with OMD on their second album ‘Organisation’, ‘Working With Fire & Steel – Possible Pop Songs Volume 2’ allowed CHINA CRISIS to deliver a more cohesive album following the four producers who attempted to steer their promising debut ‘Difficult Shapes & Passive Rhythms – Some People Think It’s Fun To Entertain’!
Best known for the brilliant Emulator laced hit single ‘Wishful Thinking’, the album is much more than that with melancholic synth melodies and woodwind counterpoints over a combination of real and programmed rhythm sections with ‘Papua’, ‘The Gates Of Door To Door’ and ‘The Soul Awakening’ being particular stand-outs.
Available as a CD or download via Virgin Records
DAVID SYLVIAN Brilliant Trees (1984)
By 1984, DAVID SYLVIAN had everything… first there was Mick Karn’s ex-girlfriend Yuka Fuiji (who had already dated his brother Steve Jansen) which had caused JAPAN to split up in the first place and secondly from Virgin Records, a lucrative solo deal that gave him total artistic control. Split into two halves, side one of his debut solo offering adopted more of a laid back jazz feel as on the Picasso tribute ‘The Ink in the Well’ and the launch single ‘Red Guitar’.
Meanwhile the second side had synthetic Fourth World overtones with avant garde trumpetist Jon Hassell and CAN’s sound painter Holger Czukay as willing conspirators. There were echoes of Sylvian’s previous JAPAN work in the funky opener ‘Pulling Punches’ and the emotively atmospheric ‘Weathered Wall’ but with ‘Brilliant Trees’, the Lewisham born artist had moved to a new, more uncompromising level whether JAPAN’s fans liked it or not.
BRIAN ENO Thursday Afternoon (1985)
With new music technology comes new compositional concepts. The CD was launched in 1982 so BRIAN ENO’s experimental inquisitivity asked: “what can be done now that could not be done before? What kinds of music does that suggest?”. ‘Thursday Afternoon’ was a 61 minute ambient journey and so could only be listened to uninterrupted on a CD; the lack of surface noise compared to vinyl meant it could also occasionally be very quiet but audible.
Like ‘Discreet Music’ and ‘Music For Airports’ before it, ‘Thursday Afternoon’ was an environmental mood piece. Constructed primarily using Eno’s shimmering self-programmed Yamaha DX7 and minimal sustained piano, it was more like a sound sculpture than anything heard in popular music. Indeed, it was commissioned to soundtrack video paintings of the model Christine Alicino in vertical portrait format, so the TV had to be turned on its side to view it!
Available as a CD or iTunes download via Virgin Records
PHILIP OAKEY & GIORGIO MORODER Philip Oakey & Giorgio Moroder (1985)
The worldwide success of ‘Together in Electric Dreams’ meant it did better than any of the singles from THE HUMAN LEAGUE’s lukewarm ‘Hysteria’ album. Virgin swiftly despatched Oakey to record a full length album with Moroder and the resultant album remains one of the most under rated pieces of work that either party has been involved in. The segued first side was a total delight from the off with rousing ‘Why Must The Show Go On?’ while the DONNA SUMMER aping ‘Brand New Love (Take A Chance)’ was another highlight.
Side two featured the stupendous ‘Now’ and ‘Together In Electric Dreams’ but the banal ‘Shake It Up’ indicated that despite the quality of the other songs, there weren’t enough for a full album. Still, this was a great collection of mechanised synth rock with the backing from Moroder’s trusty sidekicks Arthur Barrow and Richie Zito sounding mighty.
THE BLUE NILE Hats (1989)
Whenever THE BLUE NILE are mentioned, it’s their 1983 album ‘A Walk Across The Rooftops’ and the single ‘Tinseltown In The Rain’ that are always discussed in breathless awe. But actually, the follow-up ‘Hats’ is the trio’s crowning glory. Both albums were licensed to Virgin Records through an innovative deal with Linn, the high quality Hi-Fi manufacturer. Six years in the making, ‘Hats’ featured more synthesizers and drum machines after the comparatively conventional sound of ‘A Walk Across The Rooftops’.
Starting with ‘Over The Hillside’, it delivered mechanised experimentation delivered with hopeless romanticism where the girl never comes back. The glorious centrepieces though are ‘Headlights On The Parade’ and ‘The Downtown Lights’, both epic sub-6 minute slices of rainy cinematic drama. Although it received positive reviews, ‘Hats’ was never as highly regarded as THE BLUE NILE’s debut despite it being something of a masterpiece.
THE FUTURE SOUND OF LONDON Lifeforms (1994)
Although making their name in the post acid-house revolution with ‘Papua New Guinea’, THE FUTURE SOUND OF LONDON became flag bearers of avant garde electronic music and were seen as uncompromising successors to TANGERINE DREAM and BRIAN ENO. Signing to Virgin in 1992, the duo invested in some Akai S9000 samplers and given free rein to experiment, resulting in the complex sweeps and rhythmical collages of ‘Lifeforms’.
A double opus of downtempo electronic soundscapes, it featured musicians such as Robert Fripp and Talvin Singh as well as vocal contributions from CURVE’s Toni Halliday on ‘Cerebral’. The influence of the BBC Radiophonic Workshop also loomed heavy in the sonic playground. The standout track was ‘Cascade’ although only in abridged ambient form… the single version, which clocked in at 30 minutes over five parts, was an outstanding adventure in sound.
MASSIVE ATTACK Mezzanine (1998)
Over the years, Virgin Records have been in the fortunate position of having a critically acclaimed act on its roster at each key stage of electronic music’s development; none more so than with MASSIVE ATTACK. Despite band relations being at an all-time low, the Bristolian trip-hoppers produced some of their finest work on ‘Mezzanine’.
With dark undercurrents and eerie atmospherics, the album’s undoubted highpoints featured the vocals of COCTEAU TWINS’ Elizabeth Fraser on the hit single ‘Teardrop’ and the spy drama magnificence of ‘Black Milk’… both in hindsight now sound like the blueprint for GOLDFRAPP. Heavy on sample usage with LED ZEPPELIN, THE CURE, ULTRAVOX and ISAAC HAYES being amongst the many sources, the collective were bound to come a cropper at some point and were sued for the unauthorised use of MANFRED MANN’S EARTH BAND’s 1972 song ‘Tribute’ on ‘Black Milk’. The required clearance was a rather silly thing to have overlooked as the sample was the whole basis of the track!
Virgin Records celebrates its 40 year anniversary with a series of concerts in London. Of interest to The Electricity Club’s readers are:
CHVRCHES at O2 Shepherds Bush Empire on Thursday 17th Oct 2013
SIMPLE MINDS at Koko on Thursday 7th Nov 2013
HEAVEN 17 + Guests at Koko on Monday 11th Nov 2013
Please visit http://www.virgin40.com/ for more details
Text by Chi Ming Lai
20th August 2013